Center for Freedom and Prosperity Foundation
For Immediate Release
Thursday, September 27, 2007
Statistical Study Confirms that High Tax Rates
Discourage Productive Behavior:
America Should Learn From Europe's Mistakes
(Washington, DC, Thursday, September 27, 2007) -- The Center for
Freedom and Prosperity Foundation today released a study estimating the negative employment impact of high tax rates on labor. The Prosperitas report, which analyzed data from the United States and several European nations, is adapted from A.J. (Bram) de Bruin's thesis, submitted as part of the graduate program in Econometrics and Management Science at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Mr. de Bruin's paper entitled, "Labour Supply and Marginal Tax Rates: A case study of
Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States of America," investigates the effect of labor income taxes on the supply of paid
labor for several Western countries over the last two decades. In addition to confirming the damaging effect of labor income taxes, the paper also gives specific estimates of its magnitude for several countries and
at the same time sheds some light on the amount of time it takes for changes in taxation to affect the labor market.
Peter Heemeijer, a lecturer on quantitative economics at the University of Amsterdam, who wrote the policy summary for this study, found that the "conclusions of this paper are consistent with the notion commonly known as the Laffer Curve, which holds that a decrease in marginal tax
rates on productive activity in high-tax societies will stimulate economic activity, thereby generating at least some additional government revenues that compensate for the revenue loss due to the lower tax rate."
Link to Paper:
Below: Report Summary and
Heemeijer's Policy Summary
Comments on the study:
Andrew Quinlan, CF&P Foundation ~
"The Center is delighted to present important new research on the negative relationship between marginal tax rates and labor supply. Bram's work has important implications for American policy makers as they wrestle
with tax and entitlement policy."
Daniel Mitchell, The Cato Institute ~ "Both academic research and common sense lead to the conclusion that punitive tax rates on work will discourage the amount of labor supplied to the market. This is particularly true in nations where redistribution programs subsidize non-work. Bram's paper is a valuable contribution to the debate."
Veronique de Rugy, Mercatus Center ~ "Defenders of the welfare states sometimes argue that low levels of labor supply in Europe represent a preference for leisure, but research by Bram and others confirms that high tax rates are driving people out of the workforce and reducing the number of hours worked."
This report reviews and expands the recent discussions about the relationship between labour income tax rates and weekly worked hours. An important stimulus is the work of Prescott
(2004), who argues that the average marginal tax rate on labour income is the most important explanation for the differences in the number of working hours between the United States of America and (continental)
This report contains the following contributions. First, we construct the average marginal tax rate on labour income, and we investigate whether this tax rate is a variable which
explains the number of worked hours. Second, we investigate whether other economic variables that might influence the number of worked hours have additional explaining power. We construct a statistically and
economically meaningful model to explain the number of worked hours by the average marginal tax on labour income and the tax on consumption. Our analysis also shows that other variables, which are named in the
literature, do not play a significant role. This supports earlier claims that the level of taxes has its influence on the labour market and, therefore, on society.
Heemeijer's Policy Summary
In most nations, the law-abiding, hard-working individual loses a substantial part of his income to a range of taxes connected to his work, consumption and personal life. Taxes on labour
income are particularly noteworthy, since they discourage people from working as hard as they would under a less punitive fiscal regime. This diminished labour participation creates a deadweight loss and reduces
The attached research paper by Bram de Bruin (Erasmus University, Rotterdam), originally prepared as a masters' thesis and with assistance from the European Independent Institute (The
Hague, The Netherlands) investigates the effect of labour income taxes on the supply of paid labour for several Western countries over the last two decades. De Bruin uses time-series econometrics to determine the
macro-economic impact of the labour income tax, adapting the marginal tax rate data from a recent paper by Nobel laureate Edward Prescott (2004). Though limited availability of historical macro-economic data
prevents the construction of good models for some countries, all countries that can be modelled using linear time-series methods clearly confirm the damaging effect of excessive income taxes on the supply of paid
In addition to confirming the damaging effect of labour income taxes, the paper also gives specific estimates of its magnitude for several countries and at the same time sheds some light on
the amount of time it takes for changes in taxation to affect the labour market. For the countries with the best data, namely France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States, the statistical estimates imply
labour supply elasticities of approximately 0.43, 0.2, 0.15 and 0.18 respectively. In non-economic language, this means that the amount of paid labour would increase between 1.5 percent and 4.3 percent in the
selected countries if the tax pressure on labour income was reduced by 10 percent (i.e., a reduction in the marginal tax rate from 40 percent to 36 percent). Moreover, the structure of the models shows that the time
required for such an effect to materialize in the respective labour markets would be between one and two years.
Another noteworthy hypothesis that is confirmed in the paper, one already implied by Prescott's analysis of the supply of paid labour (2004), is that the amount of time people spend working
is not significantly influenced by union membership or other institutional factors by themselves. In other words, only when they are strongly correlated with tax pressure do institutional factors significantly
influence the supply of paid labour. Attempts to add non-fiscal explanatory variables (concerning union strength, technological and demographic development) are largely unsuccessful and, in the few cases that they
are successful, tend to have a small and/or ambiguous impact on the supply of paid labour.
Last but not least, an additional confirmation of the negative relationship between labour income tax pressure and the activity on the labour market is provided by a statistical analysis of
the pooled data made up of all countries included in the paper. A visual inspection of this data immediately suggests that the negative impact of labour income taxes on paid working hours not only holds within
countries, but clearly also across countries. This hypothesis is then statistically confirmed by means of pooled regression, which demonstrates, when it comes to the influence of labour income taxes on aggregate
economic performance, there is little difference between countries.
In general, the conclusions of this paper are consistent with the notion commonly known as the Laffer Curve, which holds that a decrease in marginal tax rates on productive activity in
high-tax societies will stimulate economic activity, thereby generating at least some additional government revenues that compensate for the revenue loss due to the lower tax rate. The paper focusses on the marginal
tax rate of labour, which is a major contributor to the overall tax level, and predicts that lowering this marginal rate will generally boost labour participation. This increase in labour participation will, other
things being equal, expand economic output, leading to a Laffer-Curve effect as additional tax revenues flow back to government (though only in rare cases will the additional revenue from stronger economic
performance fully offset the revenue losses caused by the lower tax rate).
As already noted by Prescott (2004), from the viewpoint of public policy this is good news, since it implies that the general welfare can be considerably enhanced by cutting both government
spending and income tax rates. Such reforms are especially important as a tool to address the aging problem faced by most Western nations in the coming decades. Given the gravity and universal character of the
questions investigated in this paper, its research deserves to be expanded on in the future, by for instance increasing the number of countries, refining its statistical methods and gathering more relevant
Link to paper:
For additional comments:
Andrew Quinlan can be reached at 202-285-0244, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dan Mitchell can be reached at 202-218-4615, email@example.com
Veronique de Rugy can be reached at 703-993-4930, firstname.lastname@example.org