Preserving America as an Attractive
Location for International Capital:
IRS's Interest Reporting Regulation
Will Harm U.S. Economy
Testimony Submitted by Andrew F. Quinlan
President, Center for Freedom and Prosperity
To the Senate Finance Committee Hearing on
"An Examination of U.S. Tax Policy and Its Effect on the International
Competitiveness of U.S.-Owned Foreign Operations"
July 15, 2003
Thank you for the opportunity to share my views with you. My name is Andrew Quinlan, President of the Center for Freedom and Prosperity, an Alexandria, Virginia-based, 501(c)(4)
citizen organization that lobbies Congress and the Administration on tax competition, financial privacy and fiscal sovereignty.
I also coordinate the activities of the Coalition for Tax Competition, which is made up of more than three-dozen free-market public policy organizations, including taxpayer groups, senior
citizen and family organizations, civil liberties activists, and industry and business advocates.
The Committee is examining how the impact of U.S. policies on foreign investment in the U.S. economy. This is a critical issue in today's economy, and I applaud this much-needed assessment.
There are two types of investment in the U.S. economy, direct and indirect. The typical example of foreign direct investment is a factory built by a foreign-based company. Foreign direct
investment is very important to the United States and is responsible for millions of American jobs.
Indirect investment occurs when foreigners invest money in America. Foreign indirect investment can take many forms, including money deposited in U.S. banks, purchases of stocks and/or
bonds issued by U.S. companies, and purchases of U.S. government debt. These various forms of indirect investment boost U.S. financial markets and help finance businesses and provide capital for home mortgages and
My testimony will focus on indirect investment, specifically an IRS proposal that significantly could undermine the flow of capital to the U.S. banking system.
IRS's Interest Reporting Regulation.
U.S. banks and financial institutions benefit greatly from the bank deposits of nonresident aliens. These deposits, in
turn, benefit every American by helping to create jobs, finance small business loans and improve the general welfare of all. For decades, United States lawmakers have understood the importance of attracting capital
to America, which is why Congress has chosen not to tax the interest paid on bank deposits of nonresident aliens and, the further step, of not reporting this deposit income to their home governments.
In fact, foreigners have invested more than $1 trillion in capital in the United States banks. This influx of capital will be jeopardized if a proposed Internal Revenue Service rule is
implemented. The regulation (133254-02) would require banks to report interest paid to nonresident aliens, although their deposits are not subject to U.S. taxes. This would harm America's economy and undermine the
competitiveness of U.S. financial institutions.
Unfortunately, despite the clear intent of Congress, the Internal Revenue Service is seeking to require the reporting of bank deposit interest paid to nonresident aliens. This information,
according to the proposed regulation, would then be turned over to foreign tax collectors. The price is high, especially given that the IRS does not have the authority to issue this rule.
More than 100 individuals and institutions have denounced the proposed regulation, including Senators (18), Congressmen (58) and Public Policy Organizations (35). They are joined by
many U.S. financial institutions [http://www.freedomandprosperity.org/against-irsreg.pdf].
The following are ten reasons why this regulation should be withdrawn.
IRS Abuse of Its Regulatory Authority.
Executive branch agencies and departments are supposed to issue regulations that implement laws enacted by
Congress. More specifically, the IRS is supposed to promulgate regulations that help enforce U.S. tax law. Since the United States government does not tax bank deposit interest paid to nonresident aliens, the IRS
does not need to collect this information. Indeed, the IRS admits that the purpose of this regulation is to help foreign governments tax the income their citizens earn in the United States.
The IRS Is Flouting the Law.
Congress has examined the tax treatment of indirect foreign investment for the last 82 years. The desire to attract
capital has always led lawmakers to decide not to tax or require reporting of bank deposit interest paid to nonresident aliens. The proposed IRS regulation, however, seeks to overturn the outcome of this democratic
process. This would undermine the rule of law and President Bush's efforts to rein in regulatory abuses. For more information, the CF&P Foundation issued a paper entitled "Who Writes the Law: Congress or
Capital Will Flee American Banks.
As the Figure shows, the current tax and privacy rules for foreign investors have been a huge success, attracting
about $1 trillion to U.S. financial institutions. These funds finance car loans, home mortgages and small business expansion in America. If the regulation is approved, however, foreigners will shift a substantial
share of their funds to London, Hong Kong and other jurisdictions that protect investors' interests.
In fact, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has expressed grave concerns that the rule will drive capital from the U.S. and threaten the soundness and security of the U.S. banking
system. [Link http://www.freedomandprosperity.org/fdic.pdf]
U.S. Banks Will Be Less Competitive.
Financial institutions around the world compete for liquid capital. American banks have successfully competed,
but this profitable source of deposits will become very unstable if banks are forced to put foreign tax law above U.S. tax law. Money will flow out of America, making it more difficult for U.S. banks to meet the
challenge of foreign competition. The economic loss would be substantial; Stephen Entin of the Institute for Research on Economics of Taxation estimates the regulation would annually cost $80 billion in lost output,
or 0.8 percent of U.S. gross domestic product.
Banks' Paperwork Burden Will Increase.
The IRS asserts that the total regulatory burden on financial institutions will increase by only 500 hours.
This estimate is absurdly low. To read and interpret the rule, seek appropriate legal and accounting advice and report on thousands of accounts will surely impose a far greater burden.
The Rule Is Bad Tax Policy.
The IRS regulation is a slap in the face of tax reformers. All proposals to fix the tax code, such as the flat tax, are
based on common-sense principles such as taxing income only once and taxing only income inside our borders. But the new regulation would sabotage tax reform by helping foreign governments double-tax income earned in
For example, the European Union would like the United States to join a cartel for the purpose of double-taxing cross-border savings. The Bush administration has rejected the EU request, but
the IRS rule undermines that position. In fact, the EU considers the proposed regulation supportive of its cartel.
The Required Cost-Benefit Analysis Was Not Performed.
The IRS is ignoring laws requiring cost-benefit analysis of proposed regulations. It has
effectively exempted itself from regulatory oversight by incorrectly declaring most of its regulations either "interpretative" within the meaning of the Administrative Procedure Act or not
"major" within the meaning of Executive Order 12866. Yet many IRS regulations impose significant economic costs and should be subject to regulatory review.
International Competition for Capital Will Be Undermined.
Collecting private financial information on nonresident investors and sharing that data
with foreign governments hinders jurisdictional competition. It enables high-tax governments to impose levies on income earned outside their borders, particularly discriminatory taxes on capital. Thus the regulation
would encourage governments to increase marginal tax rates on mobile capital.
The Rule Differs Little from the Clinton Administration's Proposal.
The current version of the regulation is a slight modification of a rule proposed
in the waning days of the Clinton administration. The original proposal required reporting deposit interest paid to all nonresident aliens, but intense opposition led to its withdrawal in the summer of 2002. The IRS
immediately issued the new version, which limits information collection to residents of 15 developed countries, including some EU members. However, it is clear that the IRS intends to eventually extend the
regulation to citizens of all nations.
The Regulation Violates the Treasury Department's Position on Information-Sharing.
The regulation is also contrary to the administration's position on the
treatment of confidential taxpayer information. On several occasions, former Secretary Paul O'Neill and other Treasury officials stated that the U. S. government does not support automatic information sharing.
Rather, O'Neill said information should only be provided on a case-by-case basis in response to specific requests - and with full respect for due process and individual privacy. The proposed rule clearly violates
this commitment, since any information collected would be automatically forwarded to foreign governments. The following link is to a Southeastern Legal Foundation memorandum on this topic:
The proposed IRS regulation is bad tax policy and bad regulatory policy. It is inconsistent with President Bush's tax reform agenda. And
it will hurt the U.S. economy by reducing the capital available for workers, consumers, homeowners and entrepreneurs. The rule would become effective following its final publication in the Federal Register.
Therefore, on behalf of millions of Americans represented by the members of the Coalition for Tax Competition, I today ask that your Committee review this regulation and then ask the Treasury Department to
permanently withdraw it as soon as possible.
The following is a link to additional information on the IRS's Interest Reporting Regulation: http://www.freedomandprosperity.org/update/irsreg/irsreg.shtml
Andrew F. Quinlan
President, Center for Freedom and Prosperity